Back to School at


Nationalism means the wish of a people to govern themselves as a nation. This ideal reshaped the map of Europe in the 19th century. Later in the century, nationalism took on a second meaning—an exaggerated belief in the superiority of one’s own nation.


1830–1831 Nationalist agitation; calls for democratic reform across Europe
1832 Greece recognized as independent from Turkey
1848 Nationalist and liberal uprisings across Europe
1871 Germany unites as an empire
1871 Italy becomes a single nation


Between 1772 and 1795, Poland was divided among Russia, Prussia, and Austria. There were nationalist uprisings against the Russians in 1830 and 1863, but independence was not regained until 1918.


Since the Middle Ages, Germany had been a patchwork of free cities and small states within the Holy Roman Empire. In the 1800s, these gradually came together, economically, then politically. In 1871, Wilhelm I of Prussia became emperor of a united Germany.


Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882) dreamed of uniting Italy and freeing it from foreign rule. In 1860 he assembled 1,000 volunteers, who wore red shirts as a uniform. They sailed from Genoa to Sicily and joined an uprising against that kingdom’s French rulers. They then crossed to southern Italy. Garibaldi later tried to march on Rome, and fought against Austria.


Bismarck was a Prussian politician, a conservative and a royalist. He opposed the liberal nationalists who demanded democratic change in Germany in 1848, but played a major role in creating the German Empire of 1871.

Copyright © 2007 Dorling Kindersley

stay connected

Sign up for our free email newsletters and receive the latest advice and information on all things parenting.

Enter your email address to sign up or manage your account.

Facebook icon Twitter icon Follow Us on Pinterest

editor’s picks


Handwriting Headquarters
We've got handwriting practice worksheets, handwriting tips, and answers to your child's writing struggles, just in time for back to school. Brought to you by BIC.

11 Coolest Lunch Boxes for Kids
Send your child's lunch to school in style! Check out our picks for the 11 best lunch boxes with great features from BPA-free accessories to spill-resistant fabric.

7 Important Back-to-School Safety Tips
Follow these back-to-school safety tips to make sure your child stays safe on the way to school, in the classroom, and while on the playground.

Kindergarten Readiness App Wins Gold
Our Kindergarten Readiness app won the Gold Award of Excellence in the educational category at the 2014 Communicator Awards. This valuable checklist comes with games and activities to help your child practice the essential skills she needs for kindergarten. Download the Kindergarten Readiness app today!

Join BIC on our mission to save handwriting and Fight For Your Write! Writing helps kids become better readers, boosts their confidence and sparks their creativity. Visit to sign our petition to save handwriting!