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Writing Research Papers

Transition Words and Phrases

Transition words and phrases help establish clear connections between ideas and ensure that sentences and paragraphs flow together smoothly, making them easier to read. Use the following words and phrases in the following circumstances.

To indicate more information:
Besides
Furthermore
In addition
Indeed
In fact
Moreover
Second...Third..., etc.

To indicate an example:
For example
For instance
In particular
Particularly
Specifically
To demonstrate
To illustrate

To indicate a cause or reason:
As
Because
Because of
Due to
For
For the reason that
Since

To indicate a result or an effect:
Accordingly
Finally
Consequently
Hence
So
Therefore
Thus

To indicate a purpose or reason why:
For fear that
In the hope that
In order to
So
So that
With this in mind

To compare or contrast:
Although
However
In comparison
In contrast
Likewise
Nevertheless
On the other hand
Similarly
Whereas
Yet

To indicate a particular time frame or a shift from one time period to another:

After
Before
Currently
During
Eventually
Finally
First, . . . Second, . . ., etc.
Formerly
Immediately

Initially
Lastly
Later
Meanwhile
Next
Previously
Simultaneously
Soon
Subsequently

To summarize:
Briefly
In brief
Overall
Summing up
To put it briefly
To sum up
To summarize

To conclude:
Given these facts
Hence
In conclusion
So
Therefore
Thus
To conclude

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